A Volunteer Who Answered the Call “Ask not . . . ” — Hal Hardin (Colombia)


Note from the editor: In the past four years, one would have to have been an expert in the forensic sciences to find any article in the press or social media on the Peace Corps. Then, in March of 2020, a virus resurrected it to public awareness when the Peace Corps withdrew all of its 7,000+ Volunteers from their overseas posts out of an abundance of caution for their health.
If Volunteers in active service aren’t perceived as still a viable representation of the Peace Corps’ raison d’etre, then perhaps it can be found in the dividends that returned Volunteers continue to invest in our society as responsible citizens of the world. They are emblematic of the Peace Corps’ Third Goal: “Help promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans.” Since its founding in 1961, some 285,000 Volunteers have served around the world. After returning home, what career trajectories did they take to honor that Goal?

A Profile in Citizenship

By Jerry Norris (Colombia 1963-65)

When John F. Kennedy initiated the Peace Corps in 1961, it was in response to a call in his inaugural address: “Ask Not.” One person who answered that call and became a Volunteer in Colombia — 1963-65, was Hal Hardin.

Hal Hardin

In 1974, Hal became the first judicial appointee as a state circuit judge by a new Democratic Governor, Ray Blanton, who also appointed him to the Tennessee Law Enforcement Commission. Then, in 1977, his fellow judges elected him the presiding judge of all Nashville’s courts. In every respect, Hal, a staunch Democrat, was a benefactor of Governor Blanton. Later, in that same year, he went on to become the Attorney General for the Middle District of Tennessee, appointed by then-President Carter, an official position requiring Senate confirmation.

A book published in 2013 by Keel Hunt, Coup: The Day the Democrats Ousted Their Governor, Put Republican Lamar Alexander in Office Early, and Stopped a Pardon Scandal details Hal Hardin’s response to that unforgiving task-master . . . fidelity to an oath of public office. In 1978, Hal was provided with information by the FBI that Governor Blanton had recently commuted the terms or pardoned fifty-two criminals in the middle of the night in a cash for release transaction. At one point, he was present when the FBI was monitoring conversations of a Blanton staff member with an informant in a hotel room. When he took a cigarette break in the parking lot, Hal and his associates suggested that he go back in and “ask . . . how much would it cost to spring James Earl Ray [the assassin of Martin Luther King]?”  The response:  “Whew, I don’t know about that — that’s pretty hot. But . . . maybe we can help him escape”!

The Governor-elect, Lamar Alexander,  was a Republican. In the space of 24 hours on January 17, all of the Democratic leadership had to set party loyalties aside and decide . . . with the one Republican, how to stop the Governor from issuing more pardons. On that day, the FBI informed Hal that more commutations were being prepared. Armed with legal information from the Attorney General that the State’s Constitution made a critical distinction, permitting a governor-elect to be sworn into office as early as 12:01 am on January 18, with the official inauguration to follow on the 20th, Hal phoned the Governor-elect on January 17, saying: “I am calling you as a Tennessean, not as the Attorney General. The governor is about to release some inmates who we believe have bought their way out of prison. The FBI has given us this information. Will you take the oath of office as soon as you can to stop him?”

Hal’s call initiated secret meetings on the afternoon of January 17. Each of the Democratic officials knew what had to be done, yet they were reluctant participants in taking an action that could be seen as a coup more befitting a banana republic. The Governor-elect would only agree to be sworn in early if they all concurred that it was necessary — and that it was their idea, not his. The one constant on setting their moral compass on what had to be done — and quickly, was Attorney General Hal Hardin. Under State law, pardons are irrevocable, no matter the circumstances of their issuance.

Finally, an agreement was reached with the Attorney General, Speaker of the House, the Lt. Governor, and the Governor-elect. With the exception of the Governor-elect, all were Democrats. They visited the Chief Justice at his home, requesting that he swear in the Governor-elect early. He took the oath of office at 5:55 pm on January 17. The pardons were halted. He took the oath a second time on January 20 at a formal inauguration.

None of the principals participated in further meetings on this subject — ever. They instinctively didn’t want to appear as gloating after the Governor’s demise. The leading Democrats would hold their positions during Governor Alexander’s two four-year terms. They had faced their most difficult problem at a time when they hardly knew each other. Taking their operational cue from Hal that they were Tennesseans first, this became the basis for a bond of mutual trust. They met every Tuesday in the Governor’s office to work out problems. From these meetings, bipartisan legislation flowed for the benefit of all their citizens over the next eight years.

Hal Hardin is the living embodiment of a Profile In Citizenship, a person who used his time with a public trust to demonstrate that primacy to the rule of law takes precedence over any political loyalty. He was a force-multiplier to JFK’s clarion call.  In a fitting tribute to a man guided by moral courage that never wavered, Hal was recently named president-elect of an exclusive, bipartisan organization: the National Association of Former United States Attorney Generals.



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  • What an inspiring and VERY timely account. Thank you, Jerry, for bringing this to our attention with simple and direct eloquence.

  • This is a remarkable story. The unsung acts and lives well-lived are what continue to hold us together despite this period of centrifugal forces trying to pull us apart. I’m working on a bi-partisan initiative and can see that bi-partisanship is still alive but far from well. Examples like this are inspiring. We need more.

  • Thanks for sharing. We are constrained by labels. If we insist on using labels, then lets use ones that unite us I e. American. And if we want to add an adjective keep it simple I.e honest. Looks like Hal embodies both of these.
    Ken Tesi

  • Jerry: A wonderful article. You did a great job. It is also very timely. It truly is a Profile in Courage, one that every Republican should be required to read. I think that somehow a copy should be delivered to every Republican Senator and Congressman. And a message should be attached to the article that says to these elected representatives that this is the story of a man (Hal Hardin) who faced up to his duty and acted with courage and non-partisanship that we should, and have a right to, expect of every elected and appointed official. In the current crisis we have seen very little of such courage. It should also point out that Hal had nothing to gain and a lot to lose by leading this effort to stop these blatant uncorrectable actions. The pardons could not be taken back from the unqualified people and dangerous people to whom they were granted. I think a copy should also be sent to Pelosi, right away – today. Also CNN. Also to the Biden transition team.

  • This from Michael R Wolfson


    Thank you for this Profile in Citizenship. It is very well written and reflects the excellence of a RPCV. I hope you continue to send more Profiles in Citizenship on a continuous basis. It’s not only important for us to know what our colleagues have done but to let the millions of Americans know about the Peace Corps and what PCVs have accomplished in their third and important goal of Peace Corps service. These profiles are even more important today and in the future to heal the wounds we are suffering from.

    Thank you again for making this a reality.

  • Oh, that the courage of Hal Hardin back then in 1977 could be demonstrated right now by Congressional Republicans in today’s dark period to stand tall against the evil President in his final days of office.

    Thanks, Jerry Norris, for reminding us in this well written essay.

  • Jerry: Your profile of Hal Hardin is, as I have said on a previous reading of it, an excellent commentary on Hal’s commitment to the truth and justice; and of his courage. It is highly detailed and provides information I had no sense of.

    We are living in a bitterly divided nation which cries out for courage, honesty and the truth. This
    story is an example of what can be done by all of us for the greater good. ..

  • Jerry, Hal and Vicky personify so many former Peace Corps Volunteers who returned home to continue public service and the struggle for social and economic justice in their unique ways. Some contributions were more visible and perhaps more impactful than others. But that isn’t the point. That we brought home what we learned and increased our commitment to making the lives of others better is what counts. Our efforts affirm those “better angels” of humanity and continue to serve as a model and beacon for others to build upon.

    I didn’t know Hal or Vicki but our bonds transcend our shared years in Colombia where so many of us, spread across that lovely country and cultures, were enriched and matured by the gift of serving others. If we met today, that experience would seal an intimacy and trust from the moment of knowing “you served there too!”

    Keep them coming!

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